Friday, August 18, 2017

Say's Caterpillar Hunter

Recently at one of our pole lights this large black beetle was scurrying along the ground in frantic movements as if on mission to find something, but as if it had no idea what. Either that or it was drunk. These beetles are large, devilishly fast and difficult to photograph.

Like their common name Caterpillar Hunter suggests they are fond of eating caterpillars, but will also eat other insects when available. Because of their preference for caterpillars they are certainly to be considered a friend to farmers, gardeners, and anyone else that grows food which is fed upon by various munching caterpillars. Two of their favorite caterpillars are the gypsy moth and army worm offspring! Talk about free beneficial insect control!!

The Say's Caterpillar Hunter (Calosoma sayi) also goes by the name of the Black Caterpillar Hunter, for obvious reasons. Their body is overall black, and somewhat shiny, although there is bluish-green margins which is not always visible upon first glance. The elytra (wings) have a rows of reddish (or sometimes green) colored dots down them. They may reach lengths over an inch, but appear much bigger because of their long legs and fast movements.

They are more common in the Southern and Eastern United States, but may be found throughout most of the Country.

Look for them near crop fields, beaches, and in disturbed areas under stones, leaf litter, and wood piles, where they hide out during the day. They become active at dusk and search for food all night. They are especially active at dawn before hiding away during the day.

After mating, the female will lay eggs in the soil where the grubs will feed on beetle larvae. Once they emerge as adults they may live up to 3 years, which is especially long lived for a beetle.

 I noticed when I handled this one it gave off a somewhat offensive odor. I am assuming this is a defensive response to being bothered. Many animals, including insects give off a musky smell that tastes bad to would-be predators. To a beetle, even one this large, I must have looked like a massive predator because he released a mega amount of foul, odoriferous musk that had me releasing him quickly and me washing my hands as soon as I could. I would assume  if you harassed one too much it could give a pretty good pinch with those sizeable mandibles, fortunately I did not find out.

While this species may look scary and intimidating, that is not a good reason to kill it. Instead try learning about the critters that share your yard and garden and you may find they are unlikely friends. Often unbeknownst to us while they are going about their daily activities they are helping your garden be more productive and healthy.







Sunday, July 23, 2017

Leafy Cobweb Spider

Leafy Cobweb Spider (Theridion frondeum) are beautiful spiders that are rarely seen because of their diminutive size. Females measure between 3-6 mm and males between 3-3.5 mm. Aside from the fact that they are tiny, they also hide out in leaf litter on the forest floor on at the edge of forests in fields, making them even harder to spot. When they do "hang out" in a bush or shrub, it is usually on the underside of a leaf that has been curled up. All of these things combined makes for one difficult spider to find. The one photographed here was found quite by accident. I actually spotted the bright red of the ladybug first and then discovered the spider next to it. Obviously the spider is responsible for the demise of said ladybug.
 
The leafy cobweb spider is highly variable in color and some experts claim you can collect numerous specimens from within a particular area and all will look enough different to make you think you've found entirely different species. Typically however they are creamy white, to greenish yellow with various dark brown-black line or blotches. There are specimens that lack the dark marks and are solid in color. The head is light in color with dark lines. Legs are also light colored with dark spots. I think their legs look like they are wearing little black shoes on the tips.

There are over 600 known species Worldwide within the Theridion genus, making them one of the largest groups of spiders. This particular species is found from Southern Canada, southward to Alabama and west to North Dakota.

Females make an egg sac in late spring that hatches sometime in early August. She will place the egg sac within a curled leaf and guard it. Once the spiderlings hatch she will remain with them for a short period time. This maternal care helps protect her offspring from predation. After several molts the young spiders will spend the winter as sub-adults and emerge in the spring to finish their lifecycle into an adult spider.

These are truly one of the most beautiful little spiders I've ever encountered. If you would like to find one, try sifting through leaf litter on the ground and who knows what surprise creature may turn up.


Friday, July 21, 2017

Picture-Wing Fly

This picture-wing fly (Tritoxa incurva) in the family Ulidiidae are Sometimes referred to as the "Gas Mask Fly" and from the looks of that face it is easy to understand how it earned that nick-name. They are common throughout the Central and Eastern portions of North America.

Very little seems to be known about them and there is even less information available about them. Reportedly the larvae feed on organic matter as all fly larvae in the family Ulidiidae are known to do. They are found in meadows, fields and rural areas where flowers occur. It is not clear what their preferred food is as adults, but most likely flower nectar since they are known to be found where flowers are blooming.

Flies in this family are often mistaken for fruit flies, or in the case of the one pictured here, my husband tried to convince me it was a deer fly. In his defense, we had just returned from the farm north of where we live where he was surrounded by biting deer flies. I am guessing he still had that bad experience on his mind when he spotted this fly on my car after we returned home. I even went along with his ID and felt very sheepish when I asked about it's identity on a Facebook insect group page and was told it was a picture wing fly. I REALLY DID KNOW THAT! It seems I fell under the "It has to be a deer fly" spell.... same as my husband.

These small flies (6-8mm) are rusty-red in color and have strongly patterned black and clear wings. Look for them May through October in areas where flowers are. Also may be found at lights at night, at least they are around here.


Sunday, July 16, 2017

Snowberry Clearwing Moth

Snowberry Clearwing Moths (Hemaris diffinis) are sometimes referred to as Hummingbird Moths and Lobster Moths, which are both colorful local names for these moths, which to some must superficially resemble the creatures they are nick-named after.





They are common throughout the Eastern United States, east of the Continental Divide and may be found anywhere there are flowers to nectar at and host plants to lay their eggs upon. Caterpillars feed on dogbane, dwarf bush honeysuckle, snowberry and honeysuckle. With the over abundance of invasive honeysuckle in much of Missouri, the feeding habits of these little caterpillars can only be appreciated.

These day flying moths hover at flowers and behave much like tiny hummingbirds as they unfurl their proboscis and sip nectar. They carry pollen with them as they visit flowers, making them somewhat important pollinators. While they prefer to fly around during the day, they will sometimes continue to be active at dusk if food sources are plentiful

These beautiful moths are bumblebee mimics which may afford them some protection from predation as many animals that would feed on moths may not tackle something that can fight back with a painful sting. Although once a predator learns of the dubious trick they will readily dine on them. Caterpillars are also susceptible to predation and use camouflage to blend in with the plants they feed on to help avoid hungry birds and other predators.

There is another moth in this genus also found locally and often mistaken for the snowberry, it is the Hummingbird Clearwing (Hemaris thysbe). The snowberry, pictured here always has black legs. Otherwise they are very similar with yellow and black furry bodies and mostly clear wings border in reddish-brown with black veins.


After mating, females will lay eggs on the host plant and once the caterpillar finishes growing it will drop or crawl to the ground and burrow into the soil where it will pupate. There are two generations in Missouri, but in colder climates further north there is only one generation.

As you visit your backyard flower gardens keep an eye out for these buzzing moths as they fly past you looking for flowers to sip nectar.

Monday, July 3, 2017

Pseudoscorpions

Peusdoscorpions, are a type of arachnid that superficially resemble true scorpions. They lack the stinger and are much, much smaller at only 0.08-0.31 inches in length. Although there is a species, Garypus titanius that may reach lengths up to 1/2 inch. Large by pseudoscorpion standards to be sure.
Body is flattened and pear-shaped and many people mistake them for ticks when they first spot them. In fact the one photographed here was discovered by my daughter when she was unwrapping a wedding gift. I heard her make a comment "oh look, we got a tick with this gift." I looked and discovered it was not a tick, but a pseudoscorpion.

The abdomen of pseudoscorpions have twelve segments and is made up of a protective substance called chitin. They are born looking very much like the adult and go through 3 instars, or molts, before reaching adult size. They may have 2, 4 or no eyes at all. Even those with eyes do not see well and do not rely on eyesight to find prey. Instead they use very sensitive hairs on their legs and pinchers. When a prey item brushes against them they are able to move quickly and grab dinner! Venom glands are located in the pincher-like claws that they use to inject venom into their prey. They are completely harmless unless you are booklice, mites, small flies, ants, or the larvae of carpet beetles and clothes moths. The venom works to dissolve the tissue of their insect prey so this little predator can slurp the insides out like a tiny insect slurpee.





Because of their tiny size they are rarely seen by humans, but they may occasionally show up in homes where you are likely to find them in bathrooms, kitchens and laundry rooms. They seem to prefer moist areas and in the wild you will likely find them in woodlands hiding up leaf litter or wood piles. Being tiny and lacking wings can make it difficult to move from one location to another and to spread your genes around. They have conquered this potential problematic dilemma by hitchhiking on various beetles, and thus are carried from one location to another via the beetle buses they grab a seat on. All of the best travel options serve dinner and these beetles are no exception. Often covered in mites that can drain the beetle, the pseudoscorpion finds itself attached to a flying all-you-can-eat-buffet. This symbiotic relationship benefits both the beetle and the tiny hitchhiker. The beetle gets rid of the mites and the pseudoscorpion gets dinner and transportation. (Ivory Marked Beetle pictured has a pseudoscorpion attached to it).

Some species of pseudoscorpions will even mate on these flights, giving a whole new perspective on the "mile high club."
Males form a packet of sperm called a spermatophore that he deposits on the ground (or the back of a beetle), and then grabs the female with his pinchers and drags her across it so that she will take his sperm up inside her body. Other species push the sperm inside their mates. Females may mate with numerous partners and can retain the sperm of each. She will become impregnated when she is ready to reproduce. She can produce up to 40 offspring and will provide maternal care for them by carrying them on her back and washing them with her pinchers.

The first known fossils of pseudoscorpions date to 380 million years ago. Their body shape has changed very little since they first appeared. Aristotle was the first person known to have described them and  most likely encountered them in the vast amount of papers and books at his disposal They are sometimes referred to as Book Scorpions because they are often found in books and piles of paper where they are feeding on booklice.

They are completely harmless to humans and cannot sting or bite us. Their habit of feeding on insects and tiny arachnids, like mites, that can cause significant damage makes them hugely beneficial to us. You will most likely never find more than one or two every once in awhile, but should you be encountering them in large numbers you may have a moisture problem or a large population of prey items they like to feed on. those issues should be addressed, rather than outwardly killing these tiny arachnids by using chemicals.


Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge and Massasaugas

Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Squaw Creek NWR) is located outside Mound City, MO on approximately 7300 acres. Habitat varies from prairie wetlands to loess soil hills. Wildlife from whitetail deer to snow geese call this refuge home. Of all the wild animals that live here the Massasauga rattlesnake is probably my favorite. There are only a few locations throughout the state that have the appropriate habitat for these little rattlesnakes. They are a prairie wetland species and use crayfish burrows to hibernate in. Each spring the refuge biologist searches for these snakes on the burned prairies, often with the help of volunteers. I always feel honored and a little bit excited to be included in the field research.

Sunday myself, my husband Joey as well as my good friend Cindy participated in the first field day of the spring season. Today Cindy and I made the trip back up to the refuge and helped again. I feel like we walked miles in burned fields stepping over patches of grass and through swampy ground. To say we got our exercise is an understatement, but all the legwork was worth it. We were able to see 7 Massasauga Rattlesnakes, 2 Graham's Crayfish Snakes, 3 Plains Garter Snakes, 2 Diamondback Watersnakes and numerous Red-sided Garter Snakes.



When Cindy and I arrived and headed out to catch up with the other volunteers I spotted a Graham's Crayfish Snake and pointed it out to Cindy. She was excited by the find as this was a first for her. We took a few minutes to take pictures with it before releasing it back where we found it. The frightened little snake musked Cindy as soon as she held it. Musk is substance that snakes release when alarmed. It is a mixture of musk and feces.....yes it stinks! BAD! We walked a few feet more and spotted a Massasauga and a couple of red-sided garter snakes. In less than 5 minutes, we had spotted 4 snakes!!
This was already proving to be a great day. The temperatures were in the mid 70's and looking to top out at 80 by mid-afternoon, so along with snakes, and exercise we were getting some much needed sunshine.

Male Massasauga part way out of a crayfish burrow.

 Gently removing the snake from the burrow. With patience the snake will eventually relax and can be safely removed from the burrow.

 Safely bagging the snake to weigh it.

 Placing the snake in "squeeze box" to safely get data on him.

 Darren and one of the volunteers "Sexing" the snake. It's a boy! They were excited to discover he was a recapture and had been previously PIT tagged. Now they will get new data on a previously captured snake.

 Measuring the tail length and counting rattles. 7 rattles and a button on this one. The green color on him is nail polish. It does not hurt the snake and is used to mark him so he isn't recaptured as we walk back and forth in the field looking for more snakes. 

 Snake fungal disease is an increasing problem for many species of snakes. This snake is showing some signs of having had had the disease in the past. There are some obvious nodules and scarring near the tail.

 Clipping a scale off the belly near the tail to send in for testing. Sending it in for testing will determine if the snake has been exposed to the fungal disease.

 Me getting a vial ready to put the scale clippings in to send for testing. 

 Me swabbing the area on the snake where the nodules are present. The swab will be sent in with the scale clipping for testing. 

Resting after his abduction and probing by aliens.



This prairie kingsnake was the first of the day and had a funky looking eye. At first we thought it could be the fungal disease, but after looking more closely we decided he had just shed his skin and did not shed one of his eye capsules. This gives him a goggle-eye appearance. He seemed healthy and showed no other signs of having any fungal infection.I handed the snake to Cindy so we could show it to the biologist and it musked it her good! This required a good washing with sanitary wipes. Poor Cindy...two muskings in one day!  

The Prairie Massasauga, formerly the Western Massasauga (pronounced mass-a-saw'-ga) Rattlesnake is one of the smallest rattlesnakes found in Missouri wetlands and marshes.  Loess Bluffs NWR has a strong population of these snakes in large part because the land is federally owned and the snakes are protected there. These ongoing studies help to determine population density and over all health of the snakes. Snakes are especially important in rodent control and as a vital part of the food chain and should be left alone. They are also indicators of the health of their environment.

In the Chippewa language Massasauga translates into "great river mouth" which describes the lands where they are found. Like all Missouri venomous snakes they are "pit-vipers" , meaning they have an extra sensory organ in the form of pits located between the eyes and the nostrils. These pits are heat sensing organs that help them locate prey. They have excellent eye sight and a great sense of smell. All of these senses combined make for a formidable predator. They commonly prey on mice, frogs, insects. Juveniles are fond of other serpents with Midland Brown Snakes making up the bulk of their diet. These snakes are also an important part of the food chain and sometimes fall victim to eagles, herons, raccoons, foxes, and hawks. Not to mention the occasional motorist who would rather kill snakes as to look at them. This near-sighted viewpoint of snakes is what has led to the near extinction of many species. Humans should try to exercise tolerance for these misunderstood creatures and recognize their importance in the over all health of a given habitat. 

These are a slow moving snakes that rarely strike unless being provoked or handled. Although males tend to be rather testy! Their venom is less toxic than that of most venomous snakes, but should still be considered dangerous. If bitten; immediate medical attention should be sought.  During the spring they will be found in lowlands near marshes and wetlands. In the hotter summer months they are found in higher ground near grasslands, farmland and open fields. Like all snakes they are often found sunning themselves on rocks, and roadways. Massasauga rattlesnakes reach lengths up to thirty inches. Their ground color is gray or tan with numerous darker spots, there are even melanistic black varieties found occasionally.

Massasaugas are ovoviviparous (eggs develop in the body of the parent and hatch within or immediately after being expelled). The female produces large, yolk-filled eggs which are retained within her reproductive tract for a considerable period of development. The developing embryo receives no nourishment from the female, only from the yolk. Eggs of the Massasauga hatch inside the female and the young are born “alive.” A female snake that retains eggs in her body can bask in the sun, thus raising the temperature of the eggs and speeding their development, resulting in a variable gestation period of two to four months. The average litter size is 8 with anywhere from 3 to 12 being possible.

After birth, the young are on their own—no maternal care is known in snakes. As is the case for all cold-blooded vertebrates, the growth of the young is heavily dependent upon the amount of food available.




The knowledge I gain by participating in these field trips looking for massasauga rattlesnakes as well as other snakes is invaluable to me as a naturalist. I am able to take what I learn and apply it to programs and it better equips me to answer questions the public may have about our scaley wildlife. I am more than excited to return to the refuge this spring and offer my assistance in looking for these beautiful reptiles. 

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

House Centipede

While insects and spiders are often the subject of fear or loathing for many individuals, they can be tolerated for the most part by most people. There are exceptions and centipedes tend to be it!  They have the quintessential creepy factor going on with all those legs, not to mention they are FAST! They can make a trip downstairs a bit disconcerting to home owners who know these many-legged creatures are living in the dark recesses of their basement. While many would consider these creatures a living nightmare, I can assure you they are harmless. Although related, centipedes are not technically insects or spiders since they have more than 6 or even 8 legs. Centipedes have odd numbered pairs of legs, and in the case of the house centipede they have 15 pairs of legs. The female will lay from 35 to nearly a 100 eggs in the spring. Usually they are found under logs, stones or other hidden locations outside with adequate moisture. They will also readily reproduce in human structures in colder climates. The young are born looking very much like their adult counterparts, except with 4 sets of legs. They will gain a new set of legs with the first molt, and 2 pairs of legs with each molt thereafter until they reach adult age and size. This typically takes 5 or 6 molts in total. 
The legs are banded light and dark, the body is grayish yellow with three stripes running the length of the body. They are 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, but appear much longer at 3 to 4 inches when you factor in the legs and antennae. The last pair of legs on the female are twice as long as her body, making her appear much larger than males.


I've found several of these at work in our basement and working in a museum I must say I am glad they are there. Nothing worse that carpet beetles for the welfare of museum mounts and other displays. House centipedes routinely feed on a variety of arthropods, including silverfish, firebrats, cockroaches and the larvae of the carpet beetle (which wreck havoc on taxidermy and insect collections). They also readily feed on bedbugs, and with the resurgence of bedbugs in recent years all I can say is YAY! The one pictured here was found upstairs at work today not far from my office door. Not sure what caused it to venture up from the recesses of the basement, but climbing stairs would be exceedingly easy for them as they can scale walls with very little effort. Maybe it was seeking food or moisture. I was able to capture it and take a few pictures, and came to the conclusion this one is probably not long for the world as it was barely moving. Normally these creatures are insanely fast and quick to dart away to a safe hiding place. Because of their erratic, quick movements many a person have ran in terror from them. Several weeks ago at work I was standing in the kitchen with a co-worker when she shrieked and jumped, which startled me and made me jump, when I looked to see what caused her distress I noticed one of these little terrors crawling out from under the microwave....or should I say sprinting out from under it? I rescued the little troublemaker and released it somewhere safer than our kitchen.

They are native to the Mediterranean Region and were somehow introduced to Mexico and the Southern United States. They have spread exponentially throughout the United States and are common in most areas. They were first found as far north as Pennsylvania in 1849. I am sure it was believed they would not survive such extreme cold winters as they are native to a tropical/temperate climate, but they have managed to do just fine. In these northern climates they simply live in human structures and reproduce there, avoiding the outside altogether. They require moisture and darkness, so basements, crawl spaces, and cellars suit them just fine. Their overall elongated, flattened shape makes it easy for them to fit through cracks in foundation walls, around sump pumps, floor drains and old pipes. In basements they spend the day hiding under cardboard boxes, stacks of papers and other hidden places out of sight until night when they become active seeking spiders and insects to feed on, or unsuspecting humans to scare.

Typically people want to know if they are harmful to humans. They have venom which is delivered through modified legs, so they basically sting their prey to impair them. They possess eyes, but seem to rely on their antennae to "feel" their environment and to find food. Their jaws are considered too weak to do much damage to humans, but occasionally a bite will occur and it is no worse than a bee sting. Naturally if you are allergic to bee venom; the venom of any arthropod could be potentially problematic and you should seek medical care.

 If you are finding an excessive amount of them in your home, it could be you have a large pest problem. Getting rid of their food source will often result in them leaving on their own when food sources are not adequate enough to sustain them or their offspring. You may also try using a humidifier and drying up the area where they are found. They do not tolerate dry climates and need adequate moisture to survive. However a few of them is not a serious problem and should be considered beneficial for the free pest control they are providing.


Tuesday, December 27, 2016

Carolina Grasshopper

One of the more common grasshoppers in Missouri is the Carolina Grasshopper (Dissosteira carolina). They are one of the largest grasshoppers in North America, with males averaging 1.5 inches in length and a wingspan up to 2.83 inches, females are larger and measure up to 2.29 inches and a wingspan up to 4 inches. You can find them in  wide variety of habitats including agricultural ground, roadsides, open weedy grasslands or anywhere there are open bare grounds. Nearly all 48 of the Continental United States are home to these Orthopteras. The exception is Southern Florida, Gulf Coastal Plains, Southwest Arizona, and the bottom 2/3rds of California.They are not particular in their diet and will feed on a wide variety of grasses, forbs, horsetails, and sedges. 

This is one of the most common grasshoppers found throughout the summer months here in Missouri. If you haven't ran across them, they are very flighty and fast. Photographing them can be a challenge in patience as you sneak up on them quietly, only to have them fly 15 feet away the second you are ready to snap a photo.

They are known by several names including Road Duster, Quaker, and Black-winged Grasshopper. I personally love the name Road Duster and it is a very apt name considering I generally find them along gravel roads in the countryside near where I live. They are often flying back and forth from ditch to ditch. The roadside weeds seem to be a favorite of these hungry little munchers. 

Color varies from tan to gray, and when not in flight they are perfectly camouflaged against the gravel road beds, open ground and old lots where they are found. 
When in flight their wings are brownish-black with yellow edges. Their flight is erratic, and often bobbing, much like a butterfly which they are often mistaken for. Mourning cloak butterflies are the most common butterfly that these grasshoppers are mistaken for, most likely due to the coloring. Mourning Cloaks have black wings edged in yellow, just like the flight wings of these grasshoppers. 

During warm, sunny days the adults frequently fly over bare ground interacting with one another. Males are known for their hovering flight. They rise almost vertically from the ground to heights of 3 to 6 feet, occasionally higher, and hover for 8 to 15 seconds. At the end they flutter down to the ground close to where they started. They may repeat this maneuver as many as five times. Females are attracted to this flight display and will come in to investigate potential mates. The display also attracts males so that a small aggregation of several males and a female may gather on the bare ground beneath the hovering male. 

Once mated the female will use her ovipositor to deposit egg pods within bare spots in the ground. The eggs remain underground all winter and hatch the following spring. The tiny nymphs will emerge from underground and begin feeding. They will reach their adult size by mid to late summer which is when breeding will once again take place. 

With hot summer temperatures these grasshoppers alter their behavior in contrast to ground temperature. When the ground temperature reaches or exceeds 110 degrees they will start climbing blades of grass or stems of plants in what is referred to as "stilting." This gets their body off the hot surface of the ground where it is blistering, and into cooler environs. They will also orient themselves so they face the sun, which reduces the amount of their body coming in contact with the direct rays of the sun, which also keeps them cooler. To say this eludes to intelligence on their part would be a stretch, but it certainly eludes to a protective instinctual behavior that protects them from injury. 

These grasshoppers are an important part of the food chain and are consumed by birds, snakes, frogs, toads, spiders, praying mantids, raccoons, skinks, skunks, mice, squirrels and other predators of insects. Even humans on occasion will consume grasshoppers for protein.

 

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Labyrinth Orbweaver

This calico-colored spider is the labyrinth orbweaver (Metepeira labyrinthea)in the family Araneidae. There are 13 species within this genus occurring throughout North America. They are fairly small spiders with a legspan about the size of a nickel. The front legs are much longer than the other pairs of legs and are banded in two-tone brown and tan. Their abdomen is oval-shaped and bulbous and is a deep reddish brown in color with distinct white markings.
Their common name comes from the type of web they are known for weaving. They build an orb-shaped web running vertical of a maze-like "labyrinth" located above and behind the orb. These webs will be found 3 to 5 feet above the ground in shrubs. This messy labyrinth often contain bits of debris or leaves woven in such a way to give the spider a retreat for safety. The web of this species is so distinct that it is possible to ID the spider before even seeing it.

Females reach maturity in late August or early September and you may encounter males hanging out in the web with them. After mating the female will create eggs sacs as uniquely shaped as their web is. Each egg sac is lenticular or lentil-shaped. The biconvex eggs are guarded by the female, as seen here, and are located near the entrance of the retreat. She will weave them with silk attached to small twigs. The female dies by late fall or early winter, but the egg sacs will remain attached to the twigs until spring at which time they hatch. The spiderlings will cluster together for a few days before ballooning and dispersing themselves into the environment.